|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 40-47
Knowledge and attitudes toward schizophrenia among high school adolescents
Seema S Anis1, Ganpat K Vankar2, Khushboo R Kansal3, Taskin N Jambusarwala3, Vishal P Gor3
1 Department of Psychiatry, Index Medical College, Indore, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, People's College of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
|Date of Submission||03-Aug-2019|
|Date of Decision||26-Sep-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Oct-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||30-May-2020|
Dr. Ganpat K Vankar
Department of Psychiatry, People's College of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Bhanpur, Bhopal - 462 037, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: Poor awareness about schizophrenia and stigma toward people with schizophrenia is an important factor impacting early detection, support, and treatment. Aims: This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude of adolescents in 9th to 12th classes in high schools toward people with schizophrenia. Settings and Design: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 4 schools as part of a schizophrenia awareness program. Subjects and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school children toward schizophrenia. A self-report questionnaire was administered with sections containing case vignette-based knowledge and attitude toward schizophrenia. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and “t”-test were done to find the association between demographic characteristics, knowledge level, and attitude. Results: Of 1540 students, about half of all respondents had average knowledge and only 10.5% students had a good knowledge score. Although knowledge level of boys and girls was similar, boys had more positive attitude toward people with schizophrenia as compared to girls. Good knowledge was associated with less distancing with person with schizophrenia. About 45% adolescents believed that people with schizophrenia are more prone to violence. Counseling and psychotherapy were endorsed as helpful compared to antipsychotic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Traditional healers were perceived as harmful. The adolescents were more ready to befriend the patient, meet him, and have him in the neighborhood but less ready to work with him or to get him married in the family in the future. Conclusions: There are important knowledge gaps in adolescents. Educational interventions should aim at correcting myths and especially emphasized effective treatment methods.
Keywords: Adolescents, attitudes, India, knowledge, schizophrenia, school
|How to cite this article:|
Anis SS, Vankar GK, Kansal KR, Jambusarwala TN, Gor VP. Knowledge and attitudes toward schizophrenia among high school adolescents. Ann Indian Psychiatry 2020;4:40-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Anis SS, Vankar GK, Kansal KR, Jambusarwala TN, Gor VP. Knowledge and attitudes toward schizophrenia among high school adolescents. Ann Indian Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 20];4:40-7. Available from: https://www.anip.co.in/text.asp?2020/4/1/40/285505
| Introduction|| |
Several studies have concluded that there is a stigmatizing and negative view toward people with schizophrenia around the world which delays its early detection and treatment.,,,
Psychiatric disorders are profoundly stigmatizing disorders despite numerous initiatives to challenge negative stereotypes., Stigma can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice), and behavior (discrimination). Individuals with mental illness may be subjected to prejudice and discrimination from others and as a result may internalize feelings of devaluation further worsening the situation.,,,
Negative societal responses to people with mental illnesses may be the single greatest barrier to the development of mental health programs worldwide. These negative effects, and the associated human rights issues, are increasingly recognized as a worthy target for social action. A number of programs have been implemented in recent years under the rubric of “anti-stigma programming” to promote greater social equity for people with mental illnesses.,
Approximately 10% children and adolescents suffer from psychiatric disorders at any given point of time; however, only one-third receive treatment, leading to personal distress and disadvantage in education, future employment, and social life. Stigmatization right from adolescence for many patients with schizophrenia becomes a major issue.
Stigma, attitude, and belief about mental disorder develop during childhood and adolescence. Intervention targeting this group will increase the treatment seeking behavior of adolescents, and it will enhance treatment compliance. Thus, this age group is appropriate to be targeted for imbibing positive attitude leading to reduction of stigma related to mental disorder, which may reduce the illness burden.
The studies indicate poor schizophrenia literacy among adolescents. For example, in a study of Swedish adolescents, only one-third of the students correctly identified the vignette as a person suffering from schizophrenia and that he needed professional treatment. A Japanese study students explored attitude toward social phobia, depression, and schizophrenia. This study revealed the highest stigma toward schizophrenia. A study of secondary school teachers from Gujarat found that only 30% considered electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as safe treatment and 50.1% considered that faith healers can help psychiatric patients. A study of nursing students and nursing staff considered faith healers as harmful for treatment of schizophrenia.
There are some studies to reduce stigma related to schizophrenia in adolescents.,, Recently, many sophisticated educational programs have been conducted to provide basic information on schizophrenia and its associated behaviors to various populations.,, These studies inspired us to conduct this work targeted at school adolescents, combining the research with an educational intervention. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude toward people with schizophrenia and their correlates in school adolescents of 9th to 12th classes in high schools. We hypothesized that high school adolescents had poor knowledge about schizophrenia, and good knowledge was associated with more positive attitude reflected in less social distance from person with schizophrenia.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge and attitude toward schizophrenia in school adolescents of classes 9th to 12th.
Instrument: A semi-structured, self-report questionnaire was administered with the following sections:
- Demographic details
- Case vignette: identification of mental health problem
- Attitude toward patient and treatment options
- Knowledge and attitude towards people with schizophrenia: the knowledge part consisted of 20 true/false statements, related to epidemiology, causation, clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of schizophrenia, with each correct response carrying score 1 with possible total knowledge score range 0–20. Score 15 or more was arbitrarily considered indicative of good knowledge (>75% correct items). The items were well-accepted facts about schizophrenia. It was used previously in the second author's study on schizophrenia literacy among nursing students and staff.
In addition, the adolescents were asked who and what can help the person with schizophrenia.
Attitude towards the person with schizophrenia was measured on a 5-point scale (certainly ready, probably ready, probably not ready, certainly not ready, and not certain) on adolescents' readiness to live in the neighborhood, to make friends, to work with and to get person married in the family.
After completing the questionnaire, an interactive educational session on the schizophrenia of 60-min duration was conducted. No posttest was taken.
We conducted the study in 4 schools. Students of classes 9th to 12th were enrolled in the study.
After taking informed consent, students were administered the pro forma in a classroom setting by the 2nd and 3rd year residents in psychiatry. None of the students refused participation, although it was purely voluntary.
This study was ethically approved by the institutional ethics committee. All the institutes were regional language medium, the study instrument was in the same language, and all schools were private schools. Principals of schools were contacted to ensure their cooperation; they gave written permission for the study. The parents were not notified.
UpenEpi (Dean AG, Sullivan KM, Soe MM. OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health, Version. www. OpenEpi.com, updated 2013/04/06, accessed 2019/10/15) was used for statistical analysis. Knowledge scores were compared for boys and girls; they were also compared for lower standards (Grade 9–10 and grade 11–12). Comparisons were made for the social distance between boys and girls, lower grades and higher grades, and between those with good knowledge and poor knowledge. Chi-square and “t”-test was done to find the association between demographic characteristics, knowledge level, and attitude. P value was set at 0.05.
| Results|| |
As shown in [Table 1], boys were overrepresented in the sample; girls were approximately one-third of boys. Age group was from 13 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.8 (standard deviation [SD] 1.17) years. Maximum students were from 9th standard.
Knowledge about schizophrenia
Knowledge score of the respondents ranged from 0 to 19, with a mean score of 10.8 (SD 3.5). Girls had a score range of 0–19, with mean score 11.2 (3.06) and boys had a score range 0–19 with mean score10.54 (3.69). The difference was not statistically significant.
Only 162 (10.5%) respondents had high knowledge level as defined by score 15 or more.
As shown in [Table 2], more than 50% considered schizophrenia patients to be violent or dangerous; they also considered medicines used in the treatment to be addictive. Sixty percent considered that medications are sleep medications which by improving sleep reduce the features of schizophrenia. 60% also regarded that ECT may cause permanent brain damage. Thus, many myths regarding schizophrenia were prevalent in adolescents.
Characteristics of adolescents who had good knowledge
There were no gender differences as regards good knowledge level. Younger adolescents aged 13–14 years and those studying in standards 9–10 were significantly overrepresented among students with good knowledge about schizophrenia [Table 3].
Perception of adolescents who can help a person with schizophrenia
As shown by [Table 4], maximum students regarded psychiatrists and family doctor to be helpful, around 60% considered that teacher can also be helpful, and around 40%–50% students considered faith healers and religious person to be harmful; but, 18% still considered that they can be helpful. Faith healers were perceived as harmful or having no impact on the treatment of schizophrenia.
|Table 4: Perception of students who can help a person with Schizophrenia (% Respondents, n=1540)|
Click here to view
Perception of respondents what can help a person with schizophrenia
As shown in [Table 5], the vast majority of students perceived Yoga and exercise followed by counseling and psychotherapy as useful in the treatment of schizophrenia. Only 22% of adolescents endorsed antipsychotic medication, which is the specific treatment. Around 10% of students responded in favor of ECT which is also an important treatment method. Some of them (1 in 7 students) considered the occasional intake of alcohol to be helpful.
|Table 5: Perception of students what can help a person having schizophrenia (% Respondents=1540)|
Click here to view
Adolescent attitude toward schizophrenia
The adolescents were more ready to befriend the patient, meet him, and have him in the neighborhood but less ready to work with him or to get him married in the family in the future [Table 6]. It shows that social acceptance is limited and is present in certain areas only.
|Table 6: Measure of social distance with a person having schizophrenia (% Respondents, N=1540)|
Click here to view
Relationship of knowledge and attitude
[Table 7] shows that respondents who had good knowledge had a better attitude toward patients as compared to those who have poor knowledge.
|Table 7: Measure of social distance with a person having schizophrenia according to knowledge (% Respondents) (Poor Knowledge=1378, Good knowledge=162)|
Click here to view
Irrespective of the knowledge level, most adolescens were ready to meet and befiend a person with schizophrenia. Those with good knowledge were more ready to live in neighbourhood and work with a person with schizophrenia. Adolescents with good knowledge were also more ready to get a person with schizophrenia married in their own family in future.
Gender and attitude toward schizophrenia
As shown in [Table 8], boys had more positive attitude toward patients of schizophrenia as compared to girls in all aspects.
|Table 8: Measure of social distance with person having schizophrenia according to sex (Girls=494, Boys=1036)|
Click here to view
Level of education and attitude toward schizophrenia
On all the parameters of social distance, adolescents studying in classes 9–10 had more positive attitude [Table 9].
|Table 9: Measure of social distance with person having schizophrenia according to level of education (Class 9-10, n=866, Class 11-12, n=674)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Adolescent knowledge about schizophrenia
Although the mean knowledge score was slightly higher than 50%, only a few scored 15, i.e., more than 75%. Thus, knowledge about schizophrenia was average. Boys and girls had almost a similar knowledge level. Moreover, there was no difference in knowledge scores between adolescents in higher grades and lower grades. Only studying in higher grade does not automatically increase knowledge about schizophrenia; educational programs are needed for enhancing knowledge about schizophrenia. The lower standard students had better knowledge compared to Std XI–XII despite the latter had exposure to psychology curriculum. This emphasizes that the curriculum needs to be modified to include biological treatments.
The delay in detection of schizophrenia leads to delay in treatment of psychosis is an important issue in the mental health field.,,, According to the studies, 1–2 years is the median duration of the untreated psychosis, which has been associated with delayed remission, increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, and an unfavorable prognosis.,
Studies have identified important factors related to delayed detection of schizophrenia.,,, One is a lack of basic knowledge of the symptoms of the disease, and the other important one is stigma.
Providing knowledge about schizophrenia is an important step in preventing delays in diagnosis.
Pang et al. study found 45.5% of Singaporean youth participating in the survey showed misconceptions and negative attitudes toward patients with mental illnesses, demonstrating a clear need for effective stigma reduction campaigns.
Adolescent knowledge about clinical features of schizophrenia
In this study, although auditory hallucinations were recognized as a feature of schizophrenia, only a few identified the poor motivation for work as a feature. The negative symptoms need emphasis in psychoeducation as they may be perceived as intentional and may lead to high expressed emotions contributing o relapses.
If adolescents are having good knowledge of clinical features, they can identify the disorder early, and this can lead to seeking appropriate psychiatric treatment. Failing this, treatment may be delayed with the possibly less desirable outcome, socio-occupational decline, added problems of substance abuse and in some cases suicide.
A common prevalent misconception was that people with schizophrenia were violent reducing their social contacts. In fact, a study concluded that patients are more prone to be victims of violence rather than committing violence themselves.
Almost 45% of students in our study also believed that people with schizophrenia were more prone to violence. Svensson et al. reported that in five of the eight training programs in European medical schools, the majority of the medical students' perceived people with schizophrenia as a danger to others. Students with previous experiences of work in mental health services and students knowing a person with schizophrenia showed more positive attitudes. The study concluded that to remove the prejudice and improve the attitude, personal contact with mentally ill people is required.
Adolescent knowledge about causative factors for schizophrenia
The biological basis of schizophrenia, i.e., neurotransmitter changes was recognized by 59.1% adolescents. This needs further emphasis to understand that the treatment methods of choice are biological.
Adolescent knowledge about treatment of schizophrenia
Only 45.5% correctly knew that antipsychotic drugs were the mainstay of treatment. Half of them considered it addictive and 45.5% knew about the need for continuing the medication for preventing relapse beyond symptomatic improvement. In contrast about two-third of the adolescents considered counseling and psychotherapy as helpful. This may be due to popular strong emphasis in psychology textbooks of Grade XII to psychotherapy while biological treatments are totally excluded. It is to be noted that all Std. XI and XII's students had exposure to the National Council of Educational Research and Training psychology curriculum.
The misconceptions led to refusal or noncompliance to effective treatment measures or choosing potentially less effective treatments.
Only 10% of adolescents considered ECT helpful for schizophrenia; this is not surprising as there are prevalent myths and negative media portrayal. Around 60% of students in the present study responded that ECT may lead to permanent brain damage. Dan et al. showed negative attitude and poor knowledge of the patient as well as relative towards ECT.
Yoga and exercise were considered helpful by a large majority. Traditionally, they are considered useful for a healthy life. Although the practice of Yoga can have positive benefits, there is a danger that many people may consider them as exclusive treatments for a severe, biological disorder like schizophrenia, not seeking more evidence-based biological treatments. More adolescents have preferred general hospital psychiatric unit hospitalization rather than admission in a mental hospital, in tune with modern psychiatric care in a non-restrictive environment. About half of the respondents considered mental hospital inpatient care as harmful.
Adolescent knowledge about who can help patients with schizophrenia
Psychiatrists, general practitioners, clinical psychologists, and teachers were considered helpful by the majority of adolescents. Although teachers are not health professionals, they may be first to recognize features of schizophrenia, especially in school adolescents. Though some studies have found inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes about schizophrenia. For instance, a study of secondary school teachers in Ahmedabad found that 76% of teachers had inadequate knowledge about mental disorders and 63.6% had negative attitudes.
Half of the respondents considered faith healers as harmful for the person with schizophrenia. Large number of people still continue to believe in supernatural causation of mental illness and the faith healer as the person who can treat these disorders. Kishore et al. showed that myth regarding schizophrenia treatment. Kishore et al. showed that myth regarding schizophrenia treatment is still prevalent, more commonly in rural areas as compared to urban areas. Shidhaye and Vankar found that irrespective of diagnosis more than half of their psychiatric patients in outpatients had consulted a traditional healer and one in five patients would recommend a traditional healer for a psychiatric disorder.
Relationship of knowledge about schizophrenia and attitude
The current study found that those who had better knowledge about the disease had more positive attitude towards the persons with schizophrenia. Singh et al. concluded that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia experienced stigma, and it was associated with a lower level of functioning; better knowledge about illness led to a decrease in stigma. Stuart and Arboleda-Flórez studied that greater knowledge was associated with less-distancing attitudes. A major study of caregiver stigma was associated with higher levels of positive symptoms of schizophrenia, higher levels of disability, patients' young age, and household education at the secondary school level. Knowledge about schizophrenia was not associated with caregiver stigma.
Many published studies reported that merely increasing knowledge about psychiatric disorders does not have a large impact on attitude for people suffering from psychiatric illness but systematic training can change attitude. Some studies have not found a significant association of knowledge and social distance from persons with schizophrenia.,,
Gender and level of education: Relation with attitude toward persons with schizophrenia
This study as found more positive attitude towards schizophrenia among boys compared to girls. Those in lower grades had more positive attitudes toward people with schizophrenia.
What to do?
Several Indian studies found correlates of stigmatization of schizophrenia. Grover et al. study found stigma to be experienced more in the early phases of illness; hence, the antistigma programs should focus more on the initial stages to reduce the negative consequences of stigma. It also emphasized that context-specific antistigma messages should be used such as “recovery is possible” and “no-one is to blame” which may be more helpful than focusing on biomedical knowledge alone. Knowledge about schizophrenia may influence the process of stigmatization in both positive and negative ways.
Several studies indicate that young people's attitudes about schizophrenia can be changed. Antistigma projects at the school level could thus be a promising approach to improving public attitudes and to preventing stereotypes from becoming reinforced. For counteracting stereotypes before they arise, targeting children and young people is a central approach in public education and antistigma campaigns.,, A study from the United States showed that youths with a mental illness are likely to experience misunderstanding and exclusion by peers and it is easier to change the attitude of students as compared to adults. Another systemic review concluded that compared to the adults, the young people accepted children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders.
Previous studies have shown that basic knowledge of schizophrenia is improved by such programs, even though they differ in their content and form from each other.,,,,,, The effective programs can target misinformation and myths related to schizophrenia which can induce a positive behavioral change in the society. Thornicroft et al. have summarized components of effective antistigma programs. They considered that social contact (i.e., interpersonal contact between people with and without the experience of mental illness) is the strongest proven active ingredient to reduce mental illness-related stigma and discrimination; such social contact is most effective in educational settings for young people. The virtual/social media contact may be as effective as direct face-to-face contact. These strategies need to be confirmed in lower and middle-income country settings like India. This will help the patients to live in a place without isolation or discrimination. Along with education, social contact with people with schizophrenia can also lead to a remarkable behavioral change in people.
The study was limited to one city of western India. Multisite study result would be more representative, and the findings can be more generalized.
This study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee with reference number IEC/Certi/197/16 obtained on 29th September 2016.
Declaration of Patient Consent
Patient consent statement was taken from each patient as per institutional ethics committee approval along with consent taken for participation in the study and publication of the scientific results / clinical information /image without revealing their identity, name or initials. The patient is aware that though confidentiality would be maintained anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Addington D, Berzins S, Yeo M. Psychosis literacy in a Canadian health region: Results from a general population sample. Can J Psychiatry 2012;57:381-8.
Tanaka G, Ogawa T, Inadomi H, Kikuchi Y, Ohta Y. Effects of an educational program on public attitudes towards mental illness. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003;57:595-602.
Lysaker PH, Davis LW, Warman DM, Strasburger A, Beattie N. Stigma, social function and symptoms in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations across 6 months. Psychiatry Res 2007;149:89-95.
Esterberg ML, Compton MT, McGee R, Shim R, Hochman K. Knowledge about schizophrenia and social distance toward individuals with schizophrenia: A survey among predominantly low-income, urban, African American community members. J Psychiatr Pract 2008;14:86-93.
Corrigan PW, Morris SB, Michaels PJ, Rafacz JD, Rüsch N. Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatr Serv 2012;63:963-73.
Sartorius N, Gaebel W, Cleveland HR, Stuart H, Akiyama T, Arboleda-Flórez J, et al.
WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists. World Psychiatry 2010;9:131-44.
Thornicroft G, Rose D, Kassam A, Sartorius N. Stigma: Ignorance, prejudice or discrimination? Br J Psychiatry 2007;190:192-3.
Pescosolido BA, Martin JK, Long JS, Medina TR, Phelan JC, Link BG. “A disease like any other”? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence. Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:1321-30.
Link BG, Wells J, Phelan JC, Yang L. Understanding the importance of “symbolic interaction stigma”: How expectations about the reactions of others adds to the burden of mental illness stigma. Psychiatr Rehabil J 2015;38:117-24.
Barry CL, McGinty EE, Pescosolido BA, Goldman HH. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: Public views about drug addiction and mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 2014;65:1269-72.
Pescosolido BA. The public stigma of mental illness: What do we think; what do we know; What can we prove? J Health Soc Behav 2013;54:1-21.
Seidman LJ. Stigma and mental illness. Asian J Psychiatry 2014 7;9:1-2.
Stuart H. Reducing the stigma of mental illness. Glob Ment Health (Camb) 2016;3:e17.
Kaushik A, Kostaki E, Kyriakopoulos M. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Psychiatry Res 2016;243:469-94.
Wahl O, Hanrahan E, Karl K, Lasher E, Swaye J. The depiction of mental illnesses in children's television programs. J Community Psychol 2007;35:121-33.
Pinto-Foltz MD, Cynthia Logsdon M. Conceptual model of research to reduce stigma related to mental disorders in adolescents. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2009;30:788-95.
Melas PA, Tartani E, Forsner T, Edhborg M, Forsell Y. Mental health literacy about depression and schizophrenia among adolescents in Sweden. Eur Psychiatry 2013;28:404-11.
Yoshioka K, Reavley NJ, MacKinnon AJ, Jorm AF. Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders: Results from a survey of Japanese high school students. Psychiatry Res 2014;215:229-36.
Parikh N, Parikh M, Vankar G, Solanki C, Banwari G, Sharma P. Knowledge and attitudes of secondary and higher secondary school teachers toward mental illness in Ahmedabad. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2016;32:56-62. [Full text]
Lakdawala BM, Vnkar GK, Bharat P, Shah Parag S. Schizophrenia literacy amongst nursing students and nursing staff: An exploratory study. Indian J Mental Health 2016;3:446-58.
Economou M, Louki E, Peppou LE, Gramandani C, Yotis L, Stefanis CN.
Fighting psychiatric stigma in the classroom: The impact of an educational intervention on secondary school students' attitudes to schizophrenia. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2012;58:544-51.
Economou M, Peppou LE, Geroulanou K, Louki E, Tsaliagkou I, Kolostoumpis D, Stefanis CN. The influence of an anti-stigma intervention on adolescents' attitudes to schizophrenia: A mixed methodology approach. Child Adol Mental Health 2014;19:16-23.
Yamaguchi H, Takahashi A, Takano A, Kojima T. Direct effects of short-term psychoeducational intervention for relatives of patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2006;60:590-7.
Stuart H. Reaching out to high school youth: The effectiveness of a video-based antistigma program. Can J Psychiatry 2006;51:647-53.
Willetts L, Leff J. Improving the knowledge and skills of psychiatric nurses: Efficacy of a staff training programme. J Adv Nurs 2003;42:237-43.
Read J, Haslam N, Sayce L, Davies E. Prejudice and schizophrenia: A review of the 'mental illness is an illness like any other' approach. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;114:303-18.
Loebel AD, Lieberman JA, Alvir JM, Mayerhoff DI, Geisler SH, Szymanski SR.
Duration of psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:1183-8.
Marshall M, Lewis S, Lockwood A, Drake R, Jones P, Croudace T, et al
. Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first-episode patients: A systematic review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:975-83.
Chong SA, Lee C, Bird L, Verma S. A risk reduction approach for schizophrenia: The early psychosis intervention programme. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2004;33:630-5.
Van Os J, Delespaul P. Toward a world consensus on prevention of schizophrenia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2005;7:53-67.
Yamazawa R, Mizuno M, Nemoto T, Miura Y, Murakami M, Kashima H. Duration of untreated psychosis and pathways to psychiatric services in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004;58:76-81.
Yung AR, Killackey E, Hetrick SE, Parker AG, Schultze-Lutter F, Klosterkoetter J, et al
. The prevention of schizophrenia. Int Rev Psychiatry 2007;19:633-46.
McGorry PD, Yung AR. Early intervention in psychosis: An overdue reform. Aust N
Z J Psychiatry 2003;37:393-8.
Pang S, Liu J, Mahesh M, Chua BY, Shahwan S, Lee SP, et al
. Stigma among Singaporean youth: A cross-sectional study on adolescent attitudes towards serious mental illness and social tolerance in a multiethnic population. BMJ Open 2017;7:e016432.
Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Abram KM, Weiner DA. Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: Comparison with the national crime victimization survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:911-21.
Svensson B, Brunt D, Bejerholm U, Eklund M, Gyllensten A, Leufstadius C, et al
. (2014) Health care students' attitudes towards people with schizophrenia — A survey of eight university training programs. Open J Psychiatry 2014;4:309-16.
NCERT. Textbook Psychology Standard XII. Psychological Disorders. Therapeutic Approaches. Ch. 4, 5. Delhi: NCERT; 1999. p. 70-88, 89-105.
Dan A, Grover S, Chakrabarti S. Knowledge and attitude of patients with psychiatric disorders and their relatives toward electroconvulsive therapy. Indian J Psychol Med 2014;36:264-9.
] [Full text]
Kishore J, Gupta A, Jiloha RC, Bantman P. Myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in Delhi, India. Indian J Psychiatry 2011;53:324-9.
] [Full text]
Shidhaye R, Vankar GK. Traditional healing practices in psychiatric outpatients. Arch Indian Psychiatry 2011;13:20-5.
Singh A, Mattoo SK, Grover S. Stigma and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia attending a general hospital psychiatric unit. Indian J Psychiatry 2016;58:291-300.
] [Full text]
Stuart H, Arboleda-Flórez J. Community attitudes toward people with schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 2001;46:245-52.
Koschorke M, Padmavati R, Kumar S, Cohen A, Weiss HA, Chatterjee S, et al.
Experiences of stigma and discrimination of people with schizophrenia in India. Soc Sci Med 2014;123:149-59.
Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H. Labeling – Stereotype – Discrimination. An investigation of the stigma process. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005;40:391-5.
Yoshii H, Watanabe Y, Kitamura H, Nan Z, Akazawa K. Effect of an education program on improving help seeking among parents of junior and senior high school students in Japan. Glob J Health Sci 2011;4:33 41.
Grover S, Avasthi A, Singh A, Dan A, Neogi R, Kaur D, et al.
Stigma experienced by patients with severe mental disorders: A nationwide multicentric study from India. Psychiatry Res 2017;257:550-8.
Schulze B, Richter-Werling M, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC. Crazy? So what! Effects of a school project on students' attitudes towards people with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003;107:142-50.
Susan B. Young people, mental illness and stigmatization. Psychiatric Bulletin 1999;23:107-11.
Meise U, Sulzenbacher H, Kemmler G, Schmid R, Rössler W, Günther V.
“Not dangerous, but nevertheless frightening”. A program against stigmatization of schizophrenia in schools. Psychiatr Prax 2000;27:340-6.
Wahl O, Susin J, Lax A, Kaplan L, Zatina D. Knowledge and attitudes about mental illness: A survey of middle school students. Psychiatr Serv 2012;63:649-54.
Ke S, Lai J, Sun T, Yang MM, Wang JC, Austin J, et al.
Healthy young minds: The effects of a 1-hour classroom workshop on mental illness stigma in high school students. Community Ment Health J 2015;51:329-37.
Watson AC, Otey E, Westbrook AL, Gardner AL, Lamb TA, Corrigan PW.
Changing middle schoolers' attitudes about mental illness through education. Schizophr Bull 2004;30:563-72.
Wahl OF, Susin J, Kaplan L, Lax A, Zatina D. Changing knowledge and attitudes with a middle school mental health education curriculum. Stigma Res Action 2011;1:44-53.
Kutcher S, Wei Y, Morgan C. Successful application of a Canadian mental health curriculum resource by usual classroom teachers in significantly and sustainably improving student mental health literacy. Can J Psychiatry 2015;60:580-6.
Ling Y, Watanabe M, Yoshii H, Akazawa K. Characteristics linked to the reduction of stigma towards schizophrenia: A pre-and-post study of parents of adolescents attending an educational program. BMC Public Health 2014;14:258.
Thornicroft G, Bakolis I, Evans-Lacko S, Gronholm PC, Henderson C, Kohrt BA, et al.
Key lessons learned from the INDIGO global network on mental health related stigma and discrimination. World Psychiatry 2019;18:229-30.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9]